UPDATED February 2024

So, you’re ready to start looking into your heritage? Genealogy research can be complex and complicated if you’re not sure where to start, but the great thing about it is that there are many resources that are focused on specific countries that your family may be from. For this list, we’ve put together resources and information about 46 different countries, so you can easily get started.

Europe search

Albania

Albania

Though Albania has a long history leading to migratory events, some of the most recent causes of migration include independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912 and the First World War. The country was constantly attacked by neighboring countries, resulting in many people leaving. Most migrated to Italy (or in the direction of Italy).

For genealogy research, the damage to the country due to invasions could make it harder to find documents, like letters or photos. Regular movement due to foreign invasion and employment concerns are other potential problems.

Research Sources:

Ancestry.com: Albania family history research page.

IOM UN Migration: Albania: The IOM UN Migration official page on Albanian migration and immigration.

Andorra

Andorra

People of Andorra may have migrated for one of several reasons including the Revolution of 1933, the FHASA strikes, and World War II. The small country is isolated, so many people leave to find work or to move to more affordable countries.

Andorra has few ties to countries outside of Portugal, France, and Spain, which can make it harder to learn about. This is something to keep in mind when you’re doing genealogy research.

Research Sources:

La Societat Catalana de Genealogia: The official page of the Genealogical Society of Catalan.

Old Maps Online: Andorra: Use this website to look at historical maps of Andorra and surrounding countries.

Austria

Austria

In the first 50 years of the 19th century, people left Austria primarily due to Catholic repression. Many people living there at the time were Protestant, which was frowned upon. In the 1930s, many Jewish individuals fled Austria to the United States and other safe harbors during the Nazi persecution.

Keep in mind that there was no official country called “Austria” until 1918, which could make it hard to search for long-lost relatives.

Research Sources:

Ancestry.com, Austria: An Austrian family history research page.

FamilySearch.org: Records and details about Austria emigration and immigration since the 1600s.

Austrian Consulate General: Family and Genealogical Research: An online research source for those with Austrian heritage.

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus, even in current times, has a problem with migration away from its borders due to poverty and violence. In 2020, for example, the Belarusian presidential election resulted in a deterioration between the EU and Belarus and an exodus from the country. Many people who leave Belarus go to other parts of Europe, but more specifically into Germany or nearby countries.

Research Sources:

The Archives of Belarus: The official archives of the country of Belarus.

Belarus Online Genealogy Records: A listing of records and resources linked to Belarus

Belarus Genealogy: A collection of Belarus-specific genealogy websites and record sources.

Belgium

Belgium

Belgium had a rough time in the 20th century. It was historically neutral, but that neutrality was violated by Germany during World War I and II. The Rape of Belgium, as well as the surrender of Leopold III, led to many people fleeing the country. The country also deals with issues such as differences in language and very unequal development, leading to social castes. People in Belgium who left the country in the past often went to the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and France. Some also went to the USA or Canada.

Research Sources:

The State Archives of Belgium: Belgium’s official state archive.

Belgium Genealogy: A listing of research tools and websites aimed at Belgian heritage.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, emigration has long been an issue. One of the main reasons people leave is the poor socio-economic conditions. High unemployment and poor quality (and a lack of) public services also play a role. In the past, ethnic cleansing and the Bosnian War (1992 to 1995) also resulted in many fleeing for other countries including Germany, Turkey, Austria, Canada, Sweden, Australia, and the United States.

Research Sources:

Family Search Bosnia and Herzegovina Emigration and Immigration: This source has links to passenger lists, arrivals in New York, and additional content.

Facebook’s Eastern Europe Genealogy Research Community: A group where individuals can share genealogy resources for those looking for information on Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as other European countries.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

There are several major events that led to Bulgarian emigration including the Russo-Turkish War in 1877-78, the two World Wars, and communism in Bulgaria after World War II. Most people who leave the country headed to places like Romania, Serbia, Turkey, North Macedonia, and Greece. Some also went to the United States, France, Germany, Spain, Russia, Italy, Argentina, the United Kingdom, and Canada.

Research Sources:

Family Search Bulgaria Emigration and Immigration: Links to online sources as well as details on the groups emigrating from Bulgaria.

State Library of South Australia: The SLSA hosts these European resources for historians looking for Bulgarian ancestors.

Legacy Tree and The Bulgarian State Archives: This service helps people get information from the official state archives of Bulgaria.

Croatia

Croatia

Prior to World War I, around 500,000 people left Croatia. The reason? The Turkish invasion as well as social, political, and economical concerns. The majority of people left for the United States at that time. World War II also spurred further emigration.

Research Sources:

Croatian Diaspora: Emigration History, Locations, Homeland: A website focused on Croatian history, diaspora, and genealogy.

Family Search – Croatia Emigration and Immigration: Online records, historical information, and emigration details.

Cyprus

Cyprus

Over many centuries, Cyprus often found itself occupied by major powers such as the Egyptians, Persians, and Assyrians. It was under Ottoman rule from 1571 until 1878. Then, it was placed under UK administration. It was annexed in 1914, and it got its independence in 1960. In the 1970s, Turkey invaded Cyprus, which led to a mass exodus. Greek Cypriots often migrated to the UK, but some went to the USA, South Africa, Canada, and Australia.

Research Sources:

Family Search – Cyprus Emigration and Immigration: Online records, historical details, emigration information, and more.

Republic of Cyprus: Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Turkish Military Invasion and Occupation – Information on the Turkish invasion as well as details on diaspora.

Czech Republic

Czech Republic

The primary reason for people of the Czech Republic to leave the country was due to poor economic opportunities. However, communism also played a role. Between 1948 and 1989, no one was allowed to emigrate, but many still did. Czechs often went to the United States or other European countries to avoid political instability.

Research Sources:

My Czech Roots: A website for those with ancestors in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia.

Family Search: Czechia Genealogy: Official links and research tools for those with Czech ancestors.

Denmark

Denmark

Compared to some of the other countries on this list, Denmark has relatively low emigration rates. The most common times for emigration were in the later 19th and early 20th centuries. At that time, Danes left for better economic opportunities, which they often found in Australia, Canada, and the U.S.

Research Sources:

Family Search: Denmark Genealogy: Links to articles, research tools, and more for Denmark-specific genealogy searches.

The Danish National Archive: A national archive of families and historical content in Denmark.

Estonia

Estonia

In recent times, Estonia has seen mass emigration due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Emigration has increased since the 1990s, largely because people wanted better economic opportunities. The most common places Estonians went were to Finland, Germany, Sweden, and related European countries. Today, the government actually has policies and initiatives in place to try to keep more people in Estonia, but emigration is still a problem.

Research Sources:

The National Archives of Estonia: Historical archives of Estonia.

Family Search: Estonia Genealogy: Links and research tools for those studying Estonia or their ancestors from the region.

Finland

Finland

Historically, the main reasons for Finnish people leaving their country between the late 1800s to early 1900s was because of the need for better job opportunities and a higher quality of life. Political repression, poverty, and unemployment were a significant driving factor, which led many Finns to travel to North America and other parts of the world. In particular, Canada and America have a large number of Finnish-Americans or Finnish-Canadians with remaining ties to Finland.

Research Sources:

Family Search: Finland Genealogy: Country information, research tools, and language support for genealogists.

Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Parish Records: Finish National Archives: Births, marriages, and deaths from between 1527 to 1921.

France

France

In the past, emigration has always been a part of French history. Between 1789 and 1815, for example, there was a mass movement due to the French Revolution. However, World War I was a major driver of an exodus from France, as the war did impact the country and negatively impact the economy. World War II was another driving factor, again linked to poverty and economic hardship. The French who fled their country usually went to nearby countries like Germany or the United Kingdom, but some also went to Canada, the United States, and Australia.

Research Sources:

France Ministry of Culture: National Archives: Historical data, digitized.

Family Search: France Genealogy: Family histories, genealogies, and ancestry information.

Germany

Germany

As you may suspect, the two main events leading to emigration from Germany were the two World Wars. World War I started the growth of emigration due to political persecution, and in the years between then and World War II, many Germans left to escape growing economic hardship. Post World War II, it was still common for Germans to leave the country for other parts of Europe, Switzerland, and Austria for economic purposes.

Research Sources:

Archion: Family genealogy research (a German website).

Matricula: Church registers from Austria, Germany, Serbia, Slovenia, and Poland.

Greece

Greece

Greece has had an issue with emigration for many centuries, but looking into the 19th century, the main reason was poverty, a lack of opportunity, and the growth of political instability. Until the early 1900s, the Ottoman Empire was in control of the country, which harmed the economy. In the 20th century, the dictatorship of Ioannis Metaxas led to political persecution, and both World War I and II resulted in people fleeing the country. Common areas they emigrated to included the United Kingdom, Europe, and Germany. Post-World War II era Greeks may also have gone to America or Australia.

Research Sources:

National Archives RG 84: Greece: Records of the foreign service posts of the department of state in Greece.

The National Archives (UK): Greece in 1914.

Greek Ancestry: Specific genealogy tools for those with Greek ancestry.

Hungary

Hungary

Economic problems were a core reason for people leaving Hungary in the mid-19th century. They often went to places like Canada or the United States to seek better opportunities. There was a period of Nazi occupation during World War II that drove further emigration. Following World War II and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, many went to Austria, the United Kingdom, Germany, and other parts of Europe.

Research Sources:

Family Search: Hungary Websites: A listing of useful genealogical websites based on Hungary.

Hungary National Library: Archives and historical information available in English and Hungarian.

Iceland

Iceland

Iceland, while beautiful, lacks economic opportunity. This, especially in the late 19th century, spurred many to move to Canada and the United States. World War II-era Iceland saw mass immigration, so native Icelanders often left to go to places like Sweden or Denmark, where they could find other opportunities. In 2008, the financial crisis sparked another mass exodus.

Research Sources:

National Archives of Iceland: Containing Icelandic historical documents from the 12th century forward.

U.S. National Archives: Passenger Arrival Lists: Passenger arrivals in New York City.

Ireland

Ireland

Between 1845 and 1852, the Great Famine was responsible for many Irish leaving the country. Many went to the United States. During wartimes, economic opportunities were lacking, and this led to further emigration. Job opportunities abroad in the United States and Australia resulted in many Irish people landing in those countries.

Research Sources:

The National Archives of Ireland: Centuries of historical documents from Ireland, as well as a Decade of Centuries website that focuses on 1912 until 1923.

The Public Record Office of Northern Ireland: The official archive for Northern Ireland.

Italy

Italy

In recent times, World War II, along with a lack of economic opportunity, resulted in many Italians relocating. In the 1970s, political unrest turned to violence, and that also led to people leaving for safer spaces. Many Italians moved to the UK, Germany, Argentina, Canada, and the United States.

Research Sources:

Italy Heritage: Italian State Archives: Detailed “Antenati” portal provides access to civil records by year starting in the early 1800s.

Family Search: Italy Archives and Libraries: A list of helpful resources and tools to do genealogy research for those with Italian ancestry.

Kosovo

Kosovo

One of the main reasons for people leaving Kosovo in the 15th to 20th centuries was the rule of the Ottoman empire. In 1910, 120,000 Albanians were deported from the Vilayet of Kosovo. Then, between 1926 and 1938, around 400,000 people moved to Turkey and Yugoslavia. Following World War II, between 1953 and 1966, another 400,000 were expelled to Turkey.

Research Sources:

Family Search: Kosovo Archives and Libraries: A listing of important resources to help study genealogy linked back to Kosovo.

The National Agency of Archives of Kosovo: Historical records held by the State Agency of Archives in Kosovo.

Latvia

Latvia

There are many reasons for people leaving Latvia, but among them is the political instability and corruption in the country. A lack of job opportunities and low salaries are common reasons for people leaving today. The largest population loss for Latvia was during World War I and the Russian civil war. At that time, around 1 million people left and traveled to Soviet Russia, Germany, Lithuania, and Estonia.

Research Sources:

The Latvian State Historical Archives- Overview: The research division for Latvia and Estonia.

Family Search: Latvia Online Genealogy Records: A listing of important tools, databases, and indexes for Latvians.

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein Logo

Liechtenstein got its political independence in 1866 when the Germanic Confederation was dissolved. The country was neutral during World War II. Poverty, a lack of prospects, and other issues led to people in Liechtenstein emigrating to the United States, Switzerland, and other countries.

Research Sources:

Liechtensteinisches Lanesarchiv – EHRI Portal– A national archive for all state agencies in Liechtenstein.

The National Archives (UK): Liechtenstein in 1914

Family Search: Liechtenstein Archives and Libraries: A collection of links and tools to help with researching genealogy linked to Liechtenstein.

Lithuania

Lithuania

People who emigrated from Lithuania in the 19th century tended to do so for economic purposes. Political persecution was another issue, as was Russification, and long, required time in the military service. Many people from Lithuania went to the USA, but some went to England, Canada, Scotland, Brazil, and South Africa.

Research Sources:

Lithuania State Historical Archives: The main location of historical documents and Lithuanian history starting in the 13th century.

Family Search: Lithuania Archives and Libraries: Additional resources for Lithuanian research.

Luxembourg

Luxembourg

People in Luxembourg started to leave the country many centuries ago, with the first recorded Luxembourgers arriving in the USA in 1630. Many people fled the country to avoid issues with overpopulation, economic changes, and famine. The USA was a popular destination, but Brazil, Germany, France, and Canada were also common areas for settlements.

Research Sources:

European Reading Room via the Library of Congress: Historical data about those who came to the USA from Luxembourg.

Family Search – Luxembourg Emigration and Immigration: Resources and data about Luxembourg emigration and immigration throughout the generations.

Malta

Malta

From 1813 until around 1964, Malta was a British colony. This opened up an opportunity to move to the United Kingdom. Later on, a lack of job opportunities was widely the cause of emigration from Malta in the 20th century, especially following World War II. Maltese people tended to go to Egypt, Greece, Cyprus, Algeria, and Australia. Most of the community, in 1956, left for Marseille.

Research Sources:

Family Search – Malta Emigration and Immigration: Online resources for passenger lists, arrival lists, biographies, and more.

The National Archives of Malta Collection: Genealogic and historic documentation for the country of Malta.

Moldova

Moldova

One major change in the 19th century that affected Moldova was the merging of western Moldova with Walachia. Together, they form modern-day Romania. The eastern part of the country was annexed to Russia in 1812. Romania took it back after World War I but lost it to the Soviets after World War II. Later, Eastern Moldova became independent in 1991. Throughout these wars, collapsing incomes, the fall of the Soviet Union, and other economic factors resulted in Moldovans leaving for Russia, Israel, Turkey, France, Romania, Ukraine, Italy, Spain, and Greece.

Research Sources:

Family Search: Moldova Genealogy: Ancestry, history, and genealogy data for those with roots in Moldova.

The National Archives of the Republic of Moldova: A database of personal data from the XV to XXI century.

Monaco

Monaco

Monaco is largely a comfortable place for people to live, but in the 1960s, France and Monaco had some tension that led to trouble. There was a blockade, and that blockade led to economic consequences despite lasting for only a few hours. Often, financial issues are at play when looking at emigration over time.

For emigrants, the most common destinations included France, Greece, the USA, Libya, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, Australia, Switzerland, and Italy.

Research Sources:

Family Search: Monaco Emigration and Immigration: Details about emigration out of, as well as immigration into, Monaco.

Accueil – Archives de la ville de Monaco: Official Monaco national archives containing historical documents.

Montenegro

Montenegro

Economics often play a role in emigration, and the same is true for those who were living in southeastern Europe in Montenegro. Fighting between Montenegro and the Turks often led to hostility and blood feuds. Political dissatisfaction, another concern, led to even further emigration. Montenegrins made a move three significant times: In the 1890s, after World War II, and after the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.

Many people from Montenegro moved to the USA, Germany, Croatia, and Slovenia.

Research Sources:

Prague Process: Migration information about Montenegro.

The State Archives of Montenegro: Archives providing for the safekeeping of national and historical documents from Montenegro.

Netherlands

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the primary cause of emigration was political or religious persecution. In some cases, people chose to leave to better position themselves to own land or get involved in trade. In other cases, people were taken from the Netherlands as slaves. The Dutch West India Company was active, and its employees, soldiers, officials, and slaves were taken to “New Netherland,” the first Dutch colony in North America (1609).

Research Sources:

National Archives: The National Archives in the Netherlands provides detailed research and historical documentation, with some of the content completely digitized.

The Netherlands Genealogy: A guide to Netherlands ancestry as well as birth records, census data, and more.

North Macedonia

North Macedonia

Even today, North Macedonia faces emigration issues. In 2021, over 200,000 people left the country. This is compounded with a declining birth rate. In previous generations, common causes of emigration included a large clash between the rich and poor (1930s). Many who leave seek Bulgarian citizenships. Others go to Croatia or Malta, The United Arab Emirates, or Abu Dhabi.

Research Sources:

Family Search: North Macedonia Genealogy: Family history, birth records, census records, military records, and additional historical content.

The State Archives of the Republic of North Macedonia: This archive network will point you to one of several departments where you can do further research.

Norway

Norway

In Norway’s history, there were many reasons for emigration including religious persecution and poverty. Many Norweigians were, at the time, Quakers. In 1820 through 1925, those two reasons spurred mass emigration to the United States and Canada. Today, better pay and improved safety are common causes.

Research Sources:

Arkivverket: Norway’s national archives for genealogical research.

Family Search: Norway Genealogy– A guide to family history, records, and ancestry focused on Norway.

Poland

Poland

Between 1831 and 1870, the “Great” Polish political emigration occurred. Their state, at the time, had been annexed and divided between three countries: Prussia, Austria, and Russia. Further emigration events including the November Rising, January Rising, and 1848 to 1849 evolutions. Then, during the World Wars (and particularly World War II), Polish emigrants and refugees made their way to Iran, the USA, and other countries.

Emigrants generally went to countries such as France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Austria.

Research Sources:

The Polish State Archives: A national archive resource that has been open since 1919.

Poland Archives and Libraries: A listing of online and digital archives as well as physical resources.

Portugal

Portugal

The Portuguese have a history of travel, and its nation has always emigrated. Starting in the 15th century, the Great Explorations led to people traveling to Africa, Brazil, Asia, and African colonies such as Mozambique and Angola. Between 1886 and 1966, around 2.6 million people left the country to almost any Western European place other than Ireland. Although it is based in Europe, Portugal is one of the poorest countries there. Many Portuguese had no other option except to find work abroad.

Research Sources:

Portuguese Historical Museum – Portuguese Migration

The Torre do Tombo: Portugal’s national archive search engine.

Romania

Romania

The communist regime fell in 1989, which resulted in a mass exodus from Romania. Some of the more recent travel from Romania has been spurred thanks to Romania joining the EU. This allows them to travel freely throughout the countries in the agreement. Those who left Romania often went to countries such as Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, China, Brazil, Mexico, Argentime, and Russia. The USA and Canada were also popular destinations, as were Turkey, Belgium, and Australia.

Research Sources:

Family Search: Romania Emigration and Immigration: Facts and research tools about Romanian emigration and immigration.

The National Archives of Romania – The National Archives of Romania are made up of 42 local branches, so you will need to reach out to specific local archives for certain information.

Russia

Russia

The first emigration from Russia came with exploring the newly discovered Alaska. Then, after it was sold to the USA in 1867, Russians stayed and continued to have cultural influence. In the later 19th century, land shortages, poverty, and famine provoked emigration. The next wave of emigration happened in 1917 when the imperial government was overthrown. Civil war followed.

The fourth-wave Russian emigration happened with the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Most recently, the 2022 invasion of Ukraine led to many Russians abandoning their country.

The most common destinations for Russians include Greece, the United Arab Emirates, Bulgaria, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Israel, Spain, and many other European countries. America, as well as Canada, also have Russian immigrants.

Research Sources:

Library of Congress: Immigration and Relocation in U.S. History

Arkhivy Rossii – The official archives of Russia.

San Marino

San Marino

San Marino is said to be the world’s oldest surviving republic. It is also one of the smallest countries in the world. Since it is well-protected, emigration is not particularly common today. However, emigration did occur during some major wars, such as the Napoleonic Wars, World War II and the Battle of San Marino (1944).

Research Sources:

Family Search: San Marino Emigration and Immigration: Resources and links to information on San Marino’s historical data.

Diocesan Archives and Library Montefeltro Roman Catholic Diocese of San Marino – Montefeltro: This is the official resource for all historical documents preserved by the Diocese dating back to the 1500s.

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia has long had a history of emigration. It’s common for its youth to be mobile, and that is partly due to the fact that there are both political and economic drivers. The end of the 19th century through the 20th century was a time of economic emigration, and political emigration occurred shortly after the end of World War II (Chetnik Immigration).

Research Sources:

Family Search: Serbia Emigration and Immigration: Lists of resources to study Serbian emigration and immigration over time.

The State Archives of Serbia: The primary source for historical documents located in Serbia.

Slovakia

Slovakia

Diminishing economic opportunities is a common reason for anyone to leave their countries, and the same is true for Slovakia. Other causes of emigration included World War I, which saw many Slovaks head to the USA, and the Soviet invasion in 1945. A fourth wave of emigration happened after the Dubček period, as people fled due to oppression and violence. Today, most emigrants head to Austria, Germany, or the Czech Republic.

Research Sources:

OECD Library: International Migration Outlook 2021: Slovak Republic: Detailed information about immigration and emigration from Slovakia.

The Slovak National Archive: The most significant public archives located in the Slovak Republic.

Slovenia

Slovenia

Slovenians fled to other countries in the hopes of escaping the Communist regime. This regime removed freedom of speech or enterprise and took part in mass killings. Communism was present both before and after World War II. Many people escaped over the border to Italy, Austria, America, Australia, and beyond.

Research Sources:

Slovenians in Australia: A host of stories about fleeing Slovenia in the 20th century as well as other useful links.

Slovenian Genealogy Society International, Inc. : A society designed to help community members research and find links to their past in Slovenia.

Spain

Spain

Spaniards primarily left their country in hopes of discovering wealth elsewhere. Many came to North America, and specifically America, on the Mayflower. Other reasons for traveling away from Spain included avoiding religious persecution and finding land to farm on.

Research Sources:

Library of Congress Research Guides: Hispanic Origins in the United States: A Guide to Local History and Genealogy Sources

Roots Web: Spanish Emigration Records in Hispanic Research: Historical commentary on emigration from Spain.

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden, though neutral in most of its history, has several major immigration issues linked to World War II. Primarily, it was a location where people gathered while fleeing from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland, but some Swedish people left due to political unrest throughout the early 20th century. While many Swedish people returned to the country after the war, others remained in North America while looking for better economic opportunities.

Research Sources:

The Swedish Genealogy Guide: A learning center focused on Swedish genealogy and research.

ArkivDigital: A popular genealogy website used by researchers in Sweden as well as those around the world.

Switzerland

Switzerland

Swiss emigration is largely linked to being unable to feed enough people in the country. The country lacks agricultural land, which led to famines in 1816/1817, 1845-1855, and 1880-1885. Many Swiss natives left for America thanks to a local council offering 400 Swiss francs to leave during an economic recession. Australia was another popular destination.

Research Sources:

Angloswiss Genealogy: A website that has more information on specific families from Switzerland.

State Library of South Australia: A European resource for family historians.

The Swiss Center: Genealogy advice and support for those historically from Switzerland.

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine has had a long history of exposure to wars, which are largely responsible for migration. In the last quarter of the 19th century, many Ukrainians moved due to agrarian resettlement. Disputes with Russia, even back then, were also responsible for migration. The Russian Civil War, economic emigration, and now the Russian invasion of Ukraine, are all responsible for the mass exodus of its people.

Ukrainian diaspora can be found in many countries all over the world. Argentina, Belarus, Canada, Poland, the United States, and Russia are all locations those migrating may have gone.

Research Sources:

Ancestry.com’s Ukraine Family History Research Page: This page contains genealogical resources to trace Ukrainian ancestors.
LVIV Ecotour: LVIV Ecotour assists with helping people who want to discover their ancestry in Ukraine and Poland.

United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland)

United Kingdom

There are two major reasons for an exodus from the United Kingdom just within the last decade or so. Those include “Brexit,” or the British exit from the European Union, and the second is the persistence of COVID-19. In fact, between 2019 and Sept. 2020, the UK’s Economic Statistics Centre of Excellence said that over 1.3 million people who originally moved to the UK after birth left the country. This is being called the second-largest population decline since World War II.

Reasons for leaving include job losses and the threat of coronavirus most recently. During World War II, immigration was partially a result of trying to avoid the war and all that came with it. The most popular destinations in the World War II era were Canada and North America. Others also included New Zealand, South Africa, Australia, and Rhodesia-Nyasaland.

Research Sources:

Migration Museum: The Migration Museum’s resource bank is a good place to look for information on migration, immigration, emigration, and more.

The Genealogist: A British website focused on researching users’ backgrounds.

Ancestry.com: This United Kingdom family history research page has genealogical resources specific to the members of the UK.

Vatican City (Holy See)

Vatican City

Vatican City, a city-state, is the smallest country in the world. Since it is such a small community, immigration into the area is rare…as is immigration out. The primary reason for people to leave is because of religious persecution or religious issues, but other common causes are related to seeking higher education that is not offered within the city, finding more spacious homes, seeking food and resources, or choosing a career path that is limited in Vatican City. The city is accessible via Italy, which is a common place for those leaving to go.

Research Sources:

Geneanet: Vatican City: This site allows the user to search within the Vatican city-state for relatives by last name, first name, or place.

The Holy See: The Holy See is Vatican City’s official website and has a collection of city-specific content that may be helpful in your research.